The Treasure Hunter

A blog by Joanne Yatvin

What is Project-Based Learning?

Yesterday I read an article about a California elementary school that has changed its basic structure to project learning. Below I will explain what has happened so far and give some details about the school. In addition I will explain my own view of project-based learning.

Five years ago, under the leadership of a new principal, Katherine Smith Elementary School in San José, CA dedicated itself to becoming a hub for 21st century learning. The school, in a high poverty area and with a large percentage of English language learners, was determined to change its traditional structure and teaching methods to project-based learning.  Since then the school has worked hard at involving both teachers and students in collaborative projects and focusing on the skills needed for students to have successful careers, be active citizens, and meet the demands of life in the future.

The new principal, Aaron Brengard, and the many experienced teachers who transferred to the school knew their job would not be easy. But they dedicated themselves to working together and teaching students to do the same.

By traditional measures the school has not improved much. Standardized test scores are still very low, and behavior problems emerge from time to time. On the other hand student and parent surveys show high satisfaction with the projects and teaching methods being used. Also, in frequent presentations of project results observers agree that students exhibit much improved speaking and critical thinking skills.

In a recent economics project for third graders, students designed new products and studied marketing skills. When they had finished their work the results were presented to local residents acting as “sharks” in a “Shark Tank. Afterward there was a fair for parents to examine the products closely and talk to students about manufacturing costs and the design processes.


As I read this article I admired the efforts the school was making, but I also wondered if the principal and teachers had a strong enough grasp of what project learning means. To my mind it is the constant classroom emphasis on student interpretation and expansion of what teachers and learning materials have presented. Below I will list a number of  projects that I have seen in elementary classrooms where students were involved in project learning on a regular basis.

Creating your own math problems based on school or home activities

Writing about a historical event as if you were there and participating

Turning a fairy tale you’ve read into a puppet play

Raising plants in a classroom under different of conditions

Designing your ideal bedroom to scale

Creating birthday cards for the school Principal

Producing a set of original products for the school store, pricing them realistically, and advertising them effectively

Making a video of classmates demonstrating safe playground behaviors

Working with a group of classmates to design a new and better set of classroom rules

Interviewing older family members about the conditions of their youth, then writing about  them

Reading a story aloud to a group of younger children in another classroom

Creating a table game for traveling west on the Oregon Trail

Performing the classroom job of putting books back on the shelves in alphabetical order for one week, and then training another student to do that job

Taking notes on a classroom animal’s daily food consumption

Drawing a map of an imaginary island that shows its mountains, rivers and other physical features; then naming it appropriately


I hope you can see that a school devoted to project learning involves students all the time with imagining, creating, using and even teaching the skills and knowledge their teachers have taught them or invited them to investigate. Actually getting involved with what has been taught is the best way to make it your own.















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More Children’s Writing

On Sunday I posted several pieces of writing by children in grades K-3 to demonstrate the competence of youngsters who have learned some important things about written language without being taught the rules of English grammar.  However, the pieces I chose relied strongly on examples of adult writing the children had studied in order to produce their own work. For that reason some readers might have assumed that the children were just copying and had not really learned much about writing.

Today I hope to erase that assumption by offering pieces of writing by students in grades 4-5.  Although their writing still echos the genres they had been studying, it is clear that they were also using much of their own ideas and language.

Two Haiku

Sniffing the spring air

A pika scans for danger

Before venturing on


A solitary ram

Awaits the coming darkness

Standing strong and tall


A Monologue: Hand Me Downs

It’s really not my style

I don’t like the color.

And it doesn’t go with my shoes

But, Mom, I don’t like it.

Do I have to wear it?

Why always hand me downs?

Can’t I ever get anything new?

I don’t want to wear Lisa’s old dress


A Diary Entering: Heading West

Tomorrow is the day we leave for Oregon, the day we gather all our courage, hope, and luck and start on a long journey toward our destiny. After many days of arranging, packing and buying we still aren’t quite ready for this trip into the depths of danger and darkness, fear, and death. All of a sudden I feel like a coward, and I want to back out and go home to Tennessee. But I know it’s too late now. I’ve already traveled for more than two weeks to get here and tomorrow we are leaving. But I trust in God and believe that he will watch over us.


 A poem: Losing a Friend

My kite just dove and crashed in the treetops

It looks like it’s broken—a goner I think

I loved that kite; I called her Ophelia.

Her body was purple; her tail was hot pink


I have possessed her for over a year

I bought her in Shopko the first day of fall

She’s flown very well, riding high when ‘twas windy

Now I cant fly Ophelia at all


It looks like she’s breaking away from the treetops

She’s pulling away with a wish for the sky

Pop! Her string broke; at last she has freedom

Now I must wish a dear friend goodbye


Introduction to a Writer

Rita Young is sharing a home with her parents, three sisters and a cat in Madison, Wisconsin, where she will soon graduate from Crestwood School

Miss Young has been writing for five years and has published many poems in “Pencil Power” and “Soaring and Exploring”, which are the school’s collections. She is now publishing “The Latest from Rita’s Writings.

Besides poetry, Miss Young is also interested in gymnastics and the violin. She hopes to train under Bella Karolyi and win the Gold Medal in Women’s Gymnastics in 1992.


Book Habits

I wonder…

Do books read

Themselves, maybe

When the lights are out

And so am I


A Business Letter

Dear President Reagan:

I think the biggest problem facing the world is nuclear war or World war III. These days the build-up of weapons is enormous and is getting very dangerous to continue. One nuclear missile can destroy all civilization and the technology that we worked so hard for. Man would have to start all over again from scratch. The delicate balance of life and death, the food chains, the relationships between plants and animals would be ruined forever.

The U.S.A. should negotiate heavily with Russia, using a highly demanding person. What you should do is make strict laws, bann bombs and missiles of any kind from staying in any country in the world, and disarm all the bombs and missiles remaining from the arms race.


Chester Chang


Prayer of the Eagle

Oh, God,

I appreciate the keen sight you gave me,

And the wings that let me soar above the clouds

Will you please keep my nest safe from man

and his machines?

And make salmon spawn in great numbers.

Also, if you would, God, please wipe out

DDT from the face of the earth.


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Writing That Grew Out of Reading

Earlier this week I wrote a response to a teacher who was concerned about the writing problems of his students, especially grammatical errors.  In my response I argued against teaching grammar and proposed using literature as the basis for student writing. However, I did not fully describe the ways in which teachers at the schools where I was principal taught writing. Today’s piece will deal with that issue more fully and give examples of writing done by primary grade students that I still have in my possession. Since my explanation and examples are limited, I suggest that those readers who want to see more look up my 2009 book, “Teaching Writing in Mixed Language Classrooms.”

P.S I wrote this piece yesterday, but did not post it because I wasn’t able to convince my computer to print poetry and songs in their proper formats.  After much effort by my son and me, we finally got the poems formatted correctly. I hope it was worth the wait.

Teachers at our schools used books, poems, songs and articles students were reading and the issues they were discussing to motivate and guide their  writing efforts. Often children were encouraged to use the structure of a piece of writing for their own content.  At the primary level they focused on easy, repetitious books, such as ” Rosie Wore her Red Dress” and “The Terrible, Horrible, Very Bad, No good Day”, and simple poems that appealed to students.  Below are several pieces written by children of ages 5-8. You won’t see many spelling or punctuation errors because teachers had children revise and correct their writing before it was published in a book for their parents.   Although I also have some excellent longer pieces of writing in my collection, I have chosen not to include them here because they would take up too much space.

Once upon a time, not my time and not your time, but once upon a time the moon was all alone in the sky. Now directly down there was a be aver village. Now that was a problem. Each night the beavers wouldn’t have enough light. Finally the genius of the beaver tribe had a council meeting. He glued a match on a board. By accident one of the beavers struck the match and a ball of fire shot up in the air. The other beavers thought it was weird, but from that day on they called it “Strange”. But they forgot how to pronounce it and started to call it “Star.” One day a new beaver said, “Look at the stars.” So nowadays we call them stars. And so it was that from that night to this night the stars have been twinkling.

A-A-Amanda, lovely Amanda
You are the only one for me
When the r-r-rainbows come down from the sky
I will be waiting at the kitchen door

I can say the ABCs
But I can’t say all the vowels
I can look at a statue
but I can’t be one
I can have a birthday every year
But I can’t have a birthday every day

“Go take a bath and wash your feet”
My mother says to me
I go take a bath and wash my feet
And call to let her see
Go take a bath and wash your feet
She says again to me
I go take a bath and wash my feet
But this is killing me!

Grant Wood’s Paintings

I felt sad and mad when my teacher told us that people did not like Grant Wood’s paintings in the beginning. When Grant Wood died, people noticed his paintings were good. I think his paintings are good, too, but I think they need more color.

Little Billy Willy
Was eating some chili
Was eating some chili quite hot
Said he, “It doesn’t matter
How much I get fatter
I’m just a little person after all.

Dear Mrs. Bohlman,
Please excuse my daughter, Julie for not handing in her homework. You see my husband is a wizard and left his lab door open by mistake. My two year old son. Jimmy, got in and took my husband’s Disappearing Potion and sprinkled it all over Julie’s homework. So now who knows where it is? Sorry.
Nancy Field

Little old fox, little old fox
Where have you been
Sorting my socks
Said the little old fox
That’s where I’ve been.

I love the sound of birds whistling
The feel of leaves
The taste of juice
The smell of bread
The sight of my mother
I love them all

Martin Luther King, Jr. had a dream. We children have a dream,too

I have a dream that the the world would be peaceful and beautiful and there wouldn’t be wars any more

I have a dream that all people that are homeless would have a home

I have a dream that the crops will grow strong so there will be no starvation

I have a dream that all countries could be friends

I have a dream that when a child’s mother or dad dies instead of being shifted around you could pick your own new mom or dad from some people who like you

I have a dream that the U.S. would put a space station in space.

I like them
Ask me why
Because they are sweet
Because they are good to eat
Because they can be soft or crunchy
Because they are also munchy.
Because they are a wonderful treat
Because, Because, Because.
That’s why I like cookies

“The Very Busy Spider” is my favorite book. Animals ask the spider if they can play with him. But he doesn’t hear them. He’s too busy making his web.


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Teaching Grammar By Not Teaching It.

As a reader of many different sources of information, I came across the essay below a couple of weeks ago. Because I was disturbed by it I will not reveal the source or the name of the author. But I will add the comment I originally wrote in response, edited for this blog. I feel justified in editing my comment because of my feelings and my haste in writing it after reading the essay.

The Essay

I’m a novelist and a relatively new teacher of freshman composition (going into my 4th semester). I’ve been searching for effective teaching methods to help my students improve their writing at the sentence level. To give you a sense of the problems I’m trying to address, here are a few sentences from their essays:

Because now in today’s age if it were opposite and it was a group of males in a store shirtless and a male manager walked in he would 9 out of 10 times ignore it and say that they weren’t doing anything stupid or unnecessary, holding women to a different standard.

The similarities among the speakers and their author are illustrated differently through their speaker’s separate tones.

The money in the household shared between the Nora and Torvald contrast the idea of a happy marriage.

I’ve read books and articles on integrating grammar instruction into a writing curriculum and have adapted the strategies that seemed most promising. I’ve also invented lessons of my own, including “Recognizing Awkward Sentences” and “Improving Awkward Sentences.” But even students who seemed to get the idea when we practiced usually forgot the lessons when they wrote their essays. And, though it hurts to admit this, very few of my students improved significantly—at the sentence level, at least—by the time they handed in their final essays.

I expect awkwardness in a first draft, in student writing and in my own; but I know that I can clear up most of the problems by going back and revising. That’s the skill I’ve tried to teach my students. So far, I haven’t found a way that works.

Frustration has led me to rethink my search. Instead of trying one teaching strategy after another, I want to find teachers who have gotten better results and ask how they did it.

Have you seen significant improvements in your students’ grammar and style between September and June? If so, would you be willing to share some of your methods? The more specifics you can provide, the better.

I want to encourage my students to think creatively. The challenge is to build their confidence at the same time that we teach them to write graceful, grammatically correct sentences. If you’ve accomplished that, please take the time to explain how.

My Response

I have always believed that the way to learn how to write is to become an avid reader. It worked for me and my children. It worked even better at the elementary and middle schools where I was the principal. I found that it is easy for sensitive readers, without any special effort or specific instruction, to absorb the structure, vocabulary, and grammar of literature, non-fiction, newspaper and magazine articles, advertisements, songs, poems, letters, and anything else that is well written.

I first became aware of the power of reading to create good writers when my youngest son wrote a fairy tale in first grade that he named, “The Bat Who Eats Children”.  Actually, his story was a close imitation of “Hansel and Gretel”, added to by what he saw and heard on “Sesame Street,” a television show for children.  He was six years old, but had absorbed the basics of writing a fairy tale, along with sound sentence structure and fairly good spelling from reading on his own and being read to.

Later on, when I was an elementary school principal, I worked with teachers who also understood that reading good writing was the foundation for children to learn the structures of prose and poetry.  One special advantage of using a piece of professional writing as the starting point for your own writing is that you can take as much or as little from a book or a story as you need. For instance, one of the books our teachers frequently chose for young children to read was “Alexander and the Terrible, Horrible, Very Bad, No Good Day” by Judith Viorst. After reading and talking about that book, children would be asked to write about a bad day, a good day, a surprising day, a magical day, etc. in their own lives. It was up to each one of them to choose the kind of day he or she wished to describe and to use as much of the the original book structure and language as  needed. Their finished products varied widely, according to their interests, abilities, and experiences, but they always showed some degree of learning about the basics of good writing and correct English grammar.

In addition to fiction, teachers used examples of other types of writing to teach students how to write newspaper articles, poems, greeting cards, advertisements, personal and business letters, and even academic essays. It was not a matter of having students read a piece once and then writing something similar, but of getting them well acquainted with a particular genre and using its basics for support in creating something of their own to fulfill their purpose.

I can’t go on to explain the full range of writing students worked on in this brief(?) comment. What I wish to emphasize is that it is  possible to teach the basics of good writing-along with correct grammatical structures-to students of any age by having them read pieces of high quality professional writing and then use them as the foundation of their own work.














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For the Fun of It (And the Learning Just Happens!)

Today’s post was written by teacher David Harrison and sent to me by a friend, Sam Bommarito, a retired teacher who has contributed pieces before and now is serving as the Co-Editor of Missouri Reader.  The piece is very long, but well worth reading and passing on. Enjoy!

 When I made up my first poem, I was hungry and tired of waiting. My mother was frying fish in the kitchen and I was sent to the living room to wait for dinner. The words I thought of expressed my need. I liked the way they sounded. “Sometimes I wish/I had a fish/Upon a little dish.” No one told me I had to make up a poem. I was six-years-old. It was just a fun thing to do. My mother taped the poem into my scrapbook. High praise!

Seven decades later I’m still making up poems. Kids ask why I climb out of bed at 6:00 a.m. to settle into my daily writing routine. The reason hasn’t changed. It’s a fun thing to do. Writing poems makes me feel good. Writing well is neither simple nor easy, but it provides me with a sense of gratification that drives my desire to do it again.

I tend to have paper and pen close by. I stash them in my bedroom, my car, and my pockets. If there’s anything I’m better at than recognizing million dollar ideas at unexpected times and places, it’s forgetting them if I don’t quickly scratch out a note. I would never admit to an officer of the law that I’ve made notes in my car. I’m just saying that I have a good many notes that I can’t read the next day.

One of my favorite ways to dive into a poem is by association. I pick a word or phrase and follow where it leads me. “Build a better mousetrap and the world will beat a path to your door.” I don’t remember who said that. By association I realized that the proper addendum for that advice would be, “But mice will hate you.” Mice led to cheese. Cheese led to the moon. If you’re not old enough to know that the moon is made of green cheese, indulge me. The moon led to the Man in the Moon, which led to a poem.



From Using the Power of Poetry

The man in the moon

Eats nothing but cheese.

There’s nothing but cheese to eat.

Often he cries

To the cheddar skies,

“I’m dying for some little treat!”

He dreams of chicken salad, he says,

On slices of fresh whole wheat.

“I yearn for yams,

Sugar-cured hams,

Or anything gooey or sweet!”

The man in the moon

Eats nothing but cheese —

There’s nothing but cheese to eat —

But oh how he wishes

For tastier dishes,

Like salads!

And veggies!

And meat!


Learning takes place when we add something new to our base of knowledge and prior experiences. When we ask students to choose writing from the long list of possibilities that vie for their attention, we’re expecting too much if, for them, writing does not bring pleasure. Readers who stumble at making sense of words strung together into sentences and paragraphs often find the shorter, more inviting lines of a poem easier to “get.” Other senses become involved. They hear the beat, feel the rhythm, and see the pictures.

Poetry teaches while it entertains. A letter from a little boy who was a struggling reader expresses what it feels like when words work their magic. “The words (in your poem) have a rhythm to them,” he wrote. “I can hear the beat in my head. Then when I get it down I read it out loud to myself.”

A six-year-old girl was given one of my books called Farmer’s Garden in which a dog interviews various inhabitants of his master’s garden. The girl sat on her mother’s lap and listened to the poetic interviews over and over. She read them silently to herself. She read them aloud. She asked an adult friend to sit down and listen to her read her new poems. She asked the adult to take turns reading with her. The little girl loved the words so much that she began acting out some of the parts, leaping and waving her arms and dancing in exuberant interpretations of what she heard and felt and saw in her imagination.

The following morning she took the book to school. There she organized her classmates into teams. As the book was read aloud, the children performed the girl’s choreographed movements. Was this youngster a struggling reader? I doubt it, but I’m willing to bet that some of her dancing classmates were, and her rambunctious joy in turning words into dance must surely have been good for every reader in the class, wherever they were along the reading scale.

Poems can convey moods, messages, and voices as broad and deep as the experience of being human. Sometimes the most serious among us feel like being silly. The most rambunctious have quiet moments; the classroom comic, his reflective times. We may feel certain emotions so deeply that we find them difficult to talk about. Being embarrassed, abused, poor, homeless, hungry, frightened, degraded, alone, are hard to discuss. Sometimes a poem can express what the tongue cannot.

I remember being mortified as a middle school student when I fell off the back of the bandstand at a school party, still clutching my trombone. I could barely stand the thought of climbing back up and facing the crowd.



From Connecting Dots

Tonight our band performed at school,

on risers in the cafeteria,

music folders on black stands,

our first gig, professional.


My solo came, I stood tall,

pushed back my chair,

played flawlessly,

acknowledged applause,

nonchalantly took my seat,


Fell off backward, chair and all,

off the back of the top riser,

somersaulted through the air,

crash-landed behind the band.


Huge applause when I reappeared,

climbed the risers carrying my chair.


I wish I’d broken both legs.

A little sympathy is my only chance

for tomorrow.


Young people in school have almost unlimited opportunities to be embarrassed. Maybe that’s why they can be so sensitive to the plight of others. This student knew exactly what I was talking about.

“Dear Mr. Harrison, My favorite poem was the one with you falling off the risers. When you fell off the risers I bet you were embarrassed. I have embarrassing moments too.”

Another common experience is being the new kid. Whether in church, neighborhood, class, school, or community, nearly every child knows what it’s like to be on the outside feeling alone and excluded. If you’re a new kid and you’re shy, you can spend a lot of time staring at your desk or looking out the window — anywhere to avoid making direct eye contact.



From Connecting Dots

What did you do

in school today?


I saw a boy

looking at me.

I waved,

but he looked away.


His friends ran up,

yelling and laughing.

I laughed, too,

but they looked away.


I answered wrong

in class today.

The boy laughed,

I looked away.


I know I’m reaching my audience when I receive notes like this one.“Mr. Harrison, I’m new so I relate. That’s exactly what happened to me.”

A poet’s job is to write so that readers want to read what he has to say. I like nature. One day on a walk I stooped to examine a single hoof print pressed into a soft spot in the path. Alone in the forest silence, I felt somehow connected to the wild creature that had walked where I now stood, perhaps moments earlier. I didn’t think, “Aha! A poem!” But I carried the memory away with me, and the act itself became part of the poem that I eventually wrote.



From Wild Country

A single hoof mark

in the moist trail,


probably a deer.


We’ll never meet

yet our paths cross



In these woods

our separate ways

are clear


but standing briefly

where this deer stood


is a memory

worth taking

beyond the wood


The deer poem seemed as inevitable as the fish poem of my youth. They both sprang from sudden urges to record a moment that felt important. I’ve developed a lot of tricks over the years to help me find my way into poems, but most of my favorites take their voices from something as simple and personal and compelling as wanting to eat or crossing paths with a deer. I am my first and most important audience. If I don’t like it, I take for granted that my readers won’t either.

Serious times in our lives often generate serious writing to describe them, but not always. As I look around at the size of a lot of us these days, I want to write about the enormity of the problem. But to write a poem about being overweight that might be read aloud in a class would risk embarrassing some of the students. Poets have a responsibility to consider such possibilities before choosing how to present a subject. My solution in this case was to keep it light and silly.



From The Boy Who Counted Stars


Mrs. LaPlump weighed 300 pounds,

Her husband weighed 202.

“I’ve got to lose some weight,” she said,

I’ll give up potatoes and pizza and bread.”

Mr. LaPlump said, “I will, too.

My darling, I’ll do it for you.”


When each of them lost 100 pounds,

He only weighed 102.

“I’ve got to lose more weight,” she said.

“This next 100,” said he, “I dread,

For when we are finished I’ll only weigh 2,

But darling, I’ll do it for you.”


When they lost another 100 pounds,

Her figure was perfect and trim,

But there is a lesson here I think,

Mr. LaPlump continued to shrink

Till one day he disappeared down the sink,

And you may find this grim, my dears,

But it was the end for him.


If we expect to draw in readers and entice writers, we need to learn what kids like. School visits help authors remember the differences from one grade to another. Sometimes this can be a challenge! If I spot some boys in the back, slouching at their seats, ankles crossed, determined to be unreachable, I play my trump card: one of my nonfiction books called Cave Detectives. One passage describes the discovery of ancient claw marks high on a cavern wall.


“Those deep gouges in the clay were put there by a bear,” I tell them.

The boys, still motionless, peer out through their eyelashes.

“Fourteen feet up the wall.”

Feet uncross.

“Four feet higher than a basketball goal.”

They lean forward.

“That bad boy could weigh 2,000 pounds, run 45 miles per hour, and was always hungry for meat.”


They’re mine. Sometimes so much so that I have a hard time moving on to the next topic. Think those boys would read a poem about a bear? Would they try their hand at making up their own bear poems? I’d bet on both.

When I was developing Connecting Dots, 54 memory-based poems that covered the arc of my life from 3 through my age at the time (early 60s), I visited P.S. 86 in the Bronx. With the wonderful support of the principal, reading coach, and teachers from third through sixth grades, every poem was read aloud in classes and rated on a grid by every student in those grades.

At the time more than 1,700 students attended P.S. 86. Weeks later I received 12,000 ratings that ranged from yuck to amazing. I learned a lot about what those kids liked and didn’t like. I removed some poems, expanded others at their request, and added others that they suggested.

But stimulating kids to read poetry is only half the battle. They also need to write their own poems. On my blog, I post a new word each month and challenge poets of all ages to write poems inspired by that word. A teacher in Florida began submitting student poems. The poems were often weak, but the students soon became fully engaged in the effort. The teacher told me that her students came from a low socioeconomic area and were in a Level 1 ninth grade class. No one ever asked them to write poetry although Level 1 students were given Intensive Reading courses to help them with the FCAT (Florida’s standardized test).

She said, “I truly believe that by shoving reading lessons down their throats without the benefit of creative writing lessons served only to bore them to tears and caused them to shut down.”  Who wants to read boring, nonfiction passages about a spider or a country they never heard of before? Now, when I introduced poetry, they were interested.  At first, they tried to act cool and aloof, but I knew them… When I showed them poetry, they were a little interested.  When I taught them to read poetry, they were more interested.  When I told them to write poetry, they thought I was crazy.

When they wrote poetry, they came alive.

Were the poems good?  No, not technically.  But they poured their hearts into them and they loved seeing their names on your blog.

And that is when their reading scores went up.”

And that seems like a good place for me to end.



(Two Voices)

From The Mouse was Out at Recess

(Isabelle)                                                                   (Teacher)

Me and Sally are pals!

Sally and I are pals.

I didn’t know you knew her!

I don’t.

Then why did you say,

“Me and Sally are pals?”

Sally and I are pals.

You said it again!

You said,

“Me and Sally are pals!”

Sally and I are pals!

Have it your own way.

You and her are pals.

But I don’t believe it,

And Sally won’t neither!


You know what? This is just a fun thing to do.


David Harrison, one of Missouri’s favorite authors, has written over seventy books and numerous articles. His writing has been translated, anthologized, and presented on stage, television, radio, cassette, and CD-ROM. David has been a musician, scientist, editor, and businessman. He holds degrees from the following universities: Drury, Emory, and Missouri State. David is Poet Laureate of Drury University.




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